Ron Kaspriske is the Senior Editor at Golf Digest. Not exactly the person you'd expect to get exercise advice from -- you'd normally expect some over-muscled personal trainer, right? But Kaspriske recently did this video of an extremely simple squat movement called a "goblet squat." I think it's awesome because it eliminates most of the dangers that can come from doing squats with weights.
The fact that you're using a relatively light weight helps reduce the danger of injury here. Why? Because you're holding this light weight very close to your chest, which forces you to go straight up and down, not get off-balance the way you can when using large, awkwardly-shaped weights.
Also, bear in mind that you don't have to go down as far as Kaspriske does, especially when you're starting out. Let your existing strength level tell you when enough is enough. The goal is to get healthier, not try to impress others.
Squats, when done safely with weights you can handle easily, are great for developing much more than power in your golf swing. Squats can really strengthen your legs, hips and lower back... and that can eliminate a lot of the lower back pain that develops from sitting for so long, especially at work.
Even if you don't use a weight, you can get most of those benefits from just squatting regularly. You can even place one hand on a table or chair to help you keep your balance if necessary -- you'll still get the benefits. It's hard to think of many exercises that can make the same claim.